A boson is a force-carrying particle that comes into play when particles interact with each other, and a boson is exchanged during this interaction. Particle physicists study matter made up of fundamental particles whose interactions are mediated by exchange particles (caliber bosons) that act as carriers of force. For example, when two electrons interact, they exchange a photon, the particle that carries force in electromagnetic fields. Doing so would not be an easy task, in fact, it would require the largest experiment and the most sophisticated machine in human history.
The presence of the field, now confirmed by experimental research, explains why some fundamental particles have mass, despite the fact that the symmetries that control their interactions mean that they should not have mass. However, as physicists populated the particle zoo with electrons, protons, bosons and all kinds of quarks, some pressing questions remained unanswered. Therefore, whatever gave mass to these particles did not have to break the invariance of the indicator as a basis for other parts of the theories where it worked well, and it didn't have to require or predict unexpected particles without mass or far-reaching forces that didn't really seem to exist in nature. In addition, the investigation of this elusive particle will deepen during the third round of the LHC and, in particular, when the upgrade to the high luminosity of the particle accelerator is completed in 2029 (opens in a new tab).
CERN estimates that, after the update each year, the accelerator will create 15 million of these particles. The relevant particle theory (in this case, the Standard Model) will determine the necessary types of collisions and detectors. The standard model includes a field of the type needed to break the electroweak symmetry and give the particles their correct mass. Caliber invariance is an important property of modern particle theories, such as the Standard Model, partly because of their success in other areas of fundamental physics, such as electromagnetism and strong interaction (quantum chromodynamics).
For example, the photon, which is the particle of light that carries electromagnetic force, has no mass.