And the Lord sighed and said: Go, let's go down and give them the particle of God there so that they can see how beautiful the universe I created is. Therefore, whatever gave mass to these particles did not have to break the invariance of the indicator as a basis for other parts of the theories where it worked well, and it didn't have to require or predict unexpected particles without mass or far-reaching forces that didn't really seem to exist in nature. Particle physicists study matter made up of fundamental particles whose interactions are mediated by exchange particles (caliber bosons) that act as carriers of force. The key method for distinguishing between these different models is the study of particle interactions (coupling) and exact decay processes (branching proportions), which can be experimentally measured and tested in particle collisions.
This particle helps give mass to all elementary particles that have mass, such as electrons and protons. If caliber invariance was to be maintained, then these particles had to acquire their mass through some other mechanism or interaction. The standard model includes a field of the type needed to break the electroweak symmetry and give the particles their correct mass. Caliber invariance is an important property of modern particle theories, such as the Standard Model, partly because of their success in other areas of fundamental physics, such as electromagnetism and strong interaction (quantum chromodynamics).
This involves accelerating large numbers of particles to extremely high energies and very close to the speed of light, and then allowing them to collide with each other. The more they interact, the heavier they become, while particles that never interact are left without any mass. In 1962, physicist Philip Anderson, an expert in condensed matter physics, observed that the breakdown of symmetry played a role in superconductivity and suggested that it could also be part of the answer to the problem of caliber invariance in particle physics. However, for this unification to work mathematically, force-carrying particles are required to have no mass.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, physicists still didn't know how to solve these problems or how to create an integral theory for particle physics.