This particle helps give mass to all elementary particles that have mass, such as electrons and protons. For example, when two electrons interact, they exchange a photon, the particle that carries force in electromagnetic fields. Finding this particle would give an idea of why certain particles have mass and would help develop later physics. However, as physicists populated the particle zoo with electrons, protons, bosons and all kinds of quarks, some pressing questions remained unanswered.
It was at the forefront of particle physics until the 1920s, when it was supplanted by the Schrödinger model, which in turn was updated periodically throughout the century. As scientists neared the end of the 20th century, advances in particle physics had answered many questions related to the fundamental components of nature. Although this idea had wide support in the particle physics community thanks to Dirac's work, the mathematicians who described this model made some predictions that were obviously false. This is because the spontaneous rupture of symmetry does not occur with photons as it does with their companion force-carrying particles, the W and Z bosons.
As a model of the universe, it is not too difficult to understand and, without a doubt, could act as a gateway to a deeper understanding of the fundamental particles that make up the world. Particles, such as protons, made up of quarks obtain most of their mass from the bonding energy that holds their components together. However, for this unification to work mathematically, force-carrying particles are required to have no mass. Now that scientists measured the mass of the particle last year, they can make many other calculations, including one that seems to indicate the end of the universe.
The particle was detected both by the LHC ATLAS detector and by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. CERN estimates that, after the update each year, the accelerator will create 15 million of these particles. The number of elementary particle fields recognized by the standard model has changed over the past 100 years as new fields were discovered, but the four forces involved remained constant: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force. The more they interact, the heavier they become, while particles that never interact are left without any mass.